Saturday 23 May 2015

Egyptian History Part 8


In Ancient Egypt, temples were constructed to house the numerous deities (gods and goddesses) that were at the center of Egyptian mythology and religion.

Due to the lack of wood in ancient Egypt, temples were constructed of stone. The walls inside those large temples were covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone then brightly painted. These scenes showed the pharaoh fighting in battles and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses.

This scene shows a person with a table of offerings that have been brought to the temple

There were six main parts to ancient Egyptian temples built during the New Kingdom period.

  • The pylon
  • The courtyard
  • The hypostyle hall
  • The second hall
  • The sanctuary
  • The sacred lake

The Luxor Temple

The temple of Luxor is close to the Nile and parallel with the riverbank. King Amenhotep III who reigned 1390-53 BC built this beautiful temple and dedicated to Gods like Amon-Re, Mut and Khons.
This temple has been in continuous use as a place of worship right up to the present day. It was completed by Tutankhamun and Horemheb and added to by Ramses II.

Layout of the Luxor Temple

Luxor Temple- First Pylon
Avenue of Sphinx leading to Luxor Temple
                                                                               Colonnade of Amenhotep III At Luxor Temple

Temple Of Abu Simbel 

In Nubia Egypt, on the west bank of Nile, is Abu Simbel; one of the world’s most impressive temples, carved out of cliffs in 1257 BCE by the order of the Pharaoh Ramses II.

The carving process took about 20 years until the impressive temple in honor of gods Amon-Re and Re-Horakhty was ready. The temples were built as a symbol of religion and to show the power of the pharaoh to the Nubian neighbours and to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Kadesh. To represent the battle, the base of the temple was carved with figures of bound captives. Abu Simbel refers to two temples: The Great Temple and The Small Temple.

The Small Temple is a monument to Ramses II most beloved queen (out of his many wives), Nefertari. It is also dedicated to the ancient Egyptian goddess Hathor.

The larger temple is located 120 meters from the small temple of Nefertari. The facade of this structure, the Great Temple of Abu Simbel, is about 35 meters long and 30 meters high

The inside of Abu Simbel Great temple is decorated with grand statues of Ramses II

Temple of Deir El Bahari

The Temple of Deir El-Bahri is one of the most characteristic temples in the whole of Egypt, due to its design and decorations. It was built for the great Queen Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty), to commemorate her achievements and to serve as a funerary Temple for her, as well as a sanctuary of the God, Amon Ra.

Deir El Bahari, Hatshepsut’s Temple
at the West Bank of Luxor, Egypt

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